An Introduction to the Tingle Programming Language

Dirk van Deun, dirk at


In class based languages, class names are usually nouns. The system described above invites the programmer to write many ideas as adjectives, or concerns; from these, classes are constructed, the names of which will often again be nouns.

The second step, composition, makes that we need a second mechanism next to scoping to determine which methods are exported by the class; in traditional class based languages these mechanisms can be one and the same, because there is a hierarchy among superclasses and subclasses.

I hope that writing concerns as ideas can contribute to untangling code conceptually, albeit at the price of more complex scoping mechanics. A good development environment should help the programmer cope with the latter in a way that it cannot do for the former.

Contents | Appendix A: Dynamic Features